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Kazakhstan, officially the Republic of Kazakhstan is a country in Central Asia. It is bordered by Russia, China, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan, as well as the coastline to the Caspian Sea. The capital is Astana and has approx. 15 million inhabitants. Kazakhstan is the world's ninth largest country, and consists of flat areas, steppes, taiga (Siberian forest land), steep valleys, hills, deltas, and snow-capped mountains, and deserts. The country is sparsely populated, and the population density is less than six people per square kilometer. Kazakhstan is ethnically and culturally diverse, in part due to mass movements of several ethnic groups to the country in the Stalin era. Kazakhs are the largest ethnic group, but the country also has 131 other ethnic groups, including Russians, Ukrainians, Uzbeks, and Tatars.

There is considerable topographic variation within Kazakhstan. Most of the country lies between 200 and 300 meters high, but along the coast of the Caspian finds some of the lowest heights of the earth. The highest point, Khan Tengri mountain in the Tian Shan range, is 7010 meters high. Many of the peaks of the mountain ranges of the Tian Shan and Altai are snow-covered year round and meltwater from here is the source of most of Kazakhstan's rivers.

9.4% of the land area in Kazakhstan consists of mixed prairie and forest or prairie skogløs, primarily in northern and around Uralelven. More than three-quarters of the country, including the western area and most of the South, are either partially desert (33.2%) or desert (44%). The terrain here is bare and eroded, with large sand dunes in deserts Kysylkum and Moyunkum.

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